Culinary gleanings from

John Gerard's

Herball or General Historie of Plantes


Page Two 

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Plant list - A to L

Alehoof; Alexanders; Alkanet; Almonds; Anacardium; Apple; Apricot; Archangel; Aromaticall Reeds; Artichoke; Asparagus; Avens, or Herbe Bennet

Banana/Plantain; Barberry; Barley; Bastard Parsley; Bastard Saffron; Bay; Beets; Bell-Flowers; Betle; Black Brionie; Bladder Nut; Blites; Borage; Brook-lime; Broome; Buckthorn; Buckwheat; Bugloss; Burdock; Burnet

Cactus; Cammocke Furze; Capers; Caraway; Carob; Carrot; Cherry; Chervil; Chestnut; Citrull Cucumber; Citrus Fruit; Clary; Cleavers; Clove Gillyflowers; Coconut; Coriander; Corne-Marigold; Costmary; Cow Parsnips; Cowslips of Jerusalem; Cress; Crow-Garlic and Ramsons; Cucumber


Earth-nut; Elder; Elecampane

Fennell Gyant; Fenugreek;Figs; Filberts; Flax

Ginger; Ginnie Pepper, Goats Beard; Goats Rue; Good King Henry; Gooseberry; Gourds; Guayaua

Hares Eares; Hemp; Hops; Horseradish; Houseleek

Jerusalem Artichoke

Kidney Beans

Ladies Bedstraw; Lambs Lettuce; Lettuce; Liquorice; Lovage; Lupine

Alehoof - pages 855-857.

"Hedera terrestris Ground-Iuy, or Ale-hoofe.
"The women of our Northerne parts, especially about Wales and Cheshire, do tunne the herbe Ale-hoof into their Ale, but the reason thereof I know not..."

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Alexanders - pages 1018-1019.

"Hipposelinum Alexanders or great Parsley.
Dioscorides saith, that the leaues and stalkes are boiled and eaten, and dressed alone by themselues, or with fishes: that they are preserued raw in pickle: that the root eaten both raw and sod, is good for the stomacke: the root hereof is also in our age serued to the table raw for a sallade herbe."

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Alkanet - pages 799-801.

"Anchusa... Alkanet or wilde Buglosse.
"The roots of these are vsed to color sirrups, waters, gellies, & such like confections as Turnsole is."

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Almonds - pages 1444-1446.

"Amygdalus. Of the Almond Tree.
There is drawne out of sweet Almonds, with liquor added, a white iuice like milke... Almonds taken before meate do stop the belly, and nourish but little; notwithstanding many excellent meates and medicines are therewith made for sundry griefes, yea very delicat and wholsome meates, as Almond butter, creame of Almonds, marchpane, and such like, which dry and stay the belly more than the extracted iuyce or milke; and they are also as good for the chest and lungs."

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Anacardium - pages 1544-1545.

"Anacardium. Of the fruit Anacardium, and Caious, or Caiocus [two different plants].
...the kernell [of Anacardium] is vsed in meates and sauces [in the East Indies], as we do Oliues and such like, to procure appetite.

...[Caious, the kidney Beane of Malaca] it selfe is no lesse pleasant and wholsome in eating, than the Pistacia, or Fisticke nut, whereof the Indians do eate with great delight, affirming that it prouoketh Venerie, wherein is their chiefest felicitie."

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Apple - pages 1458-1460.

"Malus Carbonaria. Of the Apple tree.
The tame and graffed Apple trees are planted and set in gardens and orchards made for that purpose... I haue seene in the pastures and hedge-rows about the grounds of a worshipful gentleman... so many trees of all sorts, that the seruants drinke for the most part no other drinke but that which is made of Apples; The quantity is such, that by the report of the Gentleman himselfe, the Parson hath for tithe many hogsheads of Syder...
Rosted apples are alwaies better than the raw, the harm whereof is both mended by the fire, and may also be corrected by adding vnto them seeds or spices."

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Apricot - pages 1448-1449.

"Armeniaca malus maior. Of the Aprecocke or Abrecocke tree.
Aprecocks are cold and moist in the second degree, but yet not so moist as Peaches, for which cause they do not so soone or easily putrifie, and they are also more wholesome for the stomacke, and pleasant to the taste; yet do they likewise putrifie, and yeeld but little nourishment, and the same cold, moist, and full of excrements: being taken after meate they corrupt and putrifie in the stomacke; being first eaten before other meate they easily descend, and cause the other meates to passe downe the sooner, like as also the Peaches do."

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Archangel - pages 702-705.

"Lamium. Archangell, or dead Nettle.
The floures are baked with sugar as roses are, which is called sugar Roset: as also the distilled water of them, which is vsed to make the heart merry..."

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Aromaticall Reeds - pages 62-64.

"Calamus Aromaticus Antiquorum . The True Aromaticall Reed of the Antients.
...The root of this preserued is very pleasant to the taste, and comfortable to the stomacke and heart; so that the Turks at Constantinople take it fasting in the morning, against the contagion of the corrupt aire. And the Tartars haue it in such esteeme, that they will not drinke Water (which is their vsuall drinke) vnlesse they haue first steeped some of this root therein."

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Artichoke - pages 1152-1154.

"Cinara. Artichoke.
The nailes, that is, the white and thicke parts which are in the bottome of the outward scales or flakes of the fruit of the Artichoke, and also the middle pulpe whereon the downy seed stands, are eaten both raw with pepper and salt, and commonly boyled with the broth of fat flesh, with pepper added, and are accounted a dainty dish, being pleasant to the taste, and good to procure bodily lust: so likewise the middle ribs of the leaues being made white and tender by good cherishing and looking to, are brought to the table as a great seruice together with other junkets: they are eaten with pepper and salt as be the raw Artichokes... But it is best to eate the Artichoke boyled... Some write, that if the buds of yong Artichokes be first steeped in wine, and eaten, they prouoke vrine, and stir vp the lust of the body."

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Asparagus - pages 1110-1112.

"Asparagus. Sperage, or Asparagus.
...The first sprouts or naked tender shoots hereof be oftentimes sodden in flesh broth and eaten, or boyled in faire water, and seasoned with oyle, vineger, salt, and pepper, then are serued at mens tables for a sallad; they are pleasant to the taste, easily concocted, and gently loose the belly..."

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Avens, or Herbe Bennet - pages 994-997.

"Caryophyllata... Auens, or Herbe Bennet.
...of all other pot-herbes [it] is chiefe, not onely in physicall broths, but commonly to be vsed in all."

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Banana/Plantain - pages 1514-1517.

"Musa fructus. Of Adams Apple tree, or the West-Indian Plantaine.
...Aprill 10. 1633. my much honored friend... gaue me a plant he receiued from the Bermuda's... The fruit which I receiued was not ripe, but greene, each of them was about the bignesse of a large Beane... This stalke with the fruit thereon I hanged vp in my shop, where it became ripe about the beginning of May, and lasted vntil Iune: the pulp or meat was very soft and tender, and it did eate somewhat like a Muske-Melon...
The fruit hereof yeeldeth but little nourishment: it is good for the heate of the breast, lungs, and bladder: it stoppeth the liuer, and hurteth the stomacke if too much of it be eaten, and procureth loosenesse in the belly: whereupon it is requisit for such as are of a cold constitution, in the eating thereof to put vnto it a little Ginger or other spice."

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Barberry - pages 1325-1326.

"Spina acida, siue Oxyacantha. Of Barberries.
The leaues are vsed of diuers to season meate with, and in stead of a sallad, as be those of Sorrell... The grean leaues of the Barbery bush stamped, and made into sawce, as that made of Sorrell, called greene sauce, doth coole hot stomackes, and those that are vexed with hot burning agues, and procureth appetite. The conserue made of the fruite and sugar performeth all those things before remembred, but with better force and successe."

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Barley - pages 70-72.

"Hordeum Distichon. Common Barley. serueth for Ptisana, Polenta, Maza, Malt, ale and Beere. The making whereof if any be desirous to learne, let them reade Lobelius Aduersaria, in the chapter of Barley... There be sundry sorts of Confections made of Barley, as Polenta, Ptisana, made of water and husked or hulled barley, and such like. Polenta is the meate made of parched Barley...Maza is made of parched Barley tempered with water... Hesychius doth interpret maza to be Barley meale mixed with water and oyle."

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Bastard Parsley - pages 1020-1023.

" Caucalis. Bastard Parsley.
Dioscorides saith, that bastard Parsley is a pot-herbe which is eaten either raw or boiled, and prouoketh vrine. Pliny doth reckon it vp also among the pot-herbes; Galen addeth, that it is preserued in pickle for sallades in winter. "

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Bastard Saffron - pages 1169-1170.

"Carthamus siue Cnicus. Bastard Saffron.
The seed vsed as aforesaid [bruised and strained into honied water or the broth of a chicken -- ed.], and srained into milke, causeth it to curdle and yeeld much cruds..."

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Bay - pages 1407-1409.

"Laurus. Of the Bay or Laurell tree.
The later Physitions doe oftentimes vse to boyle the leaues of Laurell with diuers meats, especially fishes, and by so doing there happeneth no desire of vomiting: but the meat seasoned herewith becommeth more sauory and better for the stomacke."

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Beets - pages 318-319.

"Beta alba. White Beets.
...the white Beete is a cold and moist pot-herbe...Being eaten when it is boyled, it quickly descendeth... especially being taken with the broth wherein it is sodden..."

Beta rubra, Beta rubra Romana. Red Beets, Red Roman Beets.

...The great and beautiful Beet last described may be vsed in winter for a salad herbe, with vinegar, oyle, and salt, and is not onely pleasant to the taste, but also delightfull to the eye.

The greater red Beet or Roman Beet, boyled and eaten with oyle, vineger and pepper, is a most excellent and delicate sallad: but what might be made of the red and beautifull root (which is to be preferred before the leaues, as well in beauty as in goodnesse) I refer vnto the curious and cunning cooke, who no doubt when he hath had the view thereof, and is assured that it is both good and wholesome, will make thereof many and diuers dishes, both faire and good."

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Bell-Flowers - pages 447-448.

"Viola Mariana. Bell-Floures or Couentry-Bells.
"The root is cold and somewhat binding, and not vsed in physicke, but only for a sallet root boyled and eaten with oyle, vinegar, and pepper."

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Betle - page 1541.

"Betle, siue Betre. Of bastard Pepper, called Betle, or Betre.
The leaues chewed in the mouth are of a bitter taste, whereupon (saith Garcias) they put thereto some Areca and with the lime made of oyster shels, whereunto they also adde some Amber Griece, Lignum Aloes, and such like, which they stampe together, making it into a paste, which they role vp into round balls, keepe dry for their vse, and carry the same in their mouthes vntill by little and little it is consumed; as when we carry sugar-Candy in our mouthes, or the iuice of Licorice; which is not onely vnto the seely Indians meate, but also drinke in their tedious trauels, refreshing their wearied spirits; and helping memory... Garcias doth not affirme that the Indians eate it for meate, or in want of drinke, but that they eate it after meate, and that to giue the breath a pleasant sent..."

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Black Brionie - pages 870-872.

"Bryonia nigra. Blacke Brionie, or the wilde Vine.
"The young and tender sproutings are kept in pickle, and reserued to be eaten with meat as Dioscorides teacheth. Matthiolus writeth that they are serued at mens tables also in our age in Tuscanie: others report the like also to be done in Andalosia, one of the kingdomes of Granado."

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Bladder Nut - pates 1437-1438.

"Nux vesicaria. Of the Bladder Nut.
...vsed of diuers in Constantinople for a daintie, especially when they be new brought out of Egypt... These nuts are moist and ful of superfluous raw humours, and therefore they easily procure a readinesse to vomite, and trouble the stomacke, by reason that withall they be somewhat binding, and therefore they be not to be eaten. They haue as yet no vse in medicine, yet notwithstanding some haue attributed vnto them some vertues in prouoking of Venerie."

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Blites - pages 320-321.

"Blitum. Blites.
...The Blite (saith Galen in his sixth booke of the faculties of simple medicines) is a pot-herbe which serueth for meate, being of a cold moist temperature, and that chiefely in the second degree. It yeeldeth to the body small nourishment...for it is one of the pot-herbes that be vnsauoury or without taste, whose substance is waterish..."

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Borage - pages 796-798.

"Borago. Borage.
...Those of our time do vse the floures in sallads, to exhilerate and make the mind glad... The leaues boyled among other pot-herbes do much preuaile in making the belly soluble..."

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Brook-lime - pages 619-622.

"Anagallis. Brooke-lime, or water Pimpernel.
...Brooke-lime is eaten in sallads as Water-Cresses are... The leaues of Brook-lime, and the tendrels of Asparagus, eaten with oyle, vineger, and Pepper, helpeth the strangurie and stone."

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Broome - pages 1311-1315.

"Genista. Rapum Genistae, siue Orobanche. Of Broome, and Broome Rape.
The young buds or little floures preserued in pickle, and eaten as a sallad, stir vp an appetite to meate and open the stoppings of the liuer and milt... Dioscorides writeth, that Orobanch may be eaten either raw or boiled, in manner as we vse to eat the sprigs or young shoots of Asparagus."

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Buckthorn - pages 1336-1338.

"Rhamnus solutivus. Of Buck-Thorne, or laxatiue Rom.
There is pressed forth of the ripe berries a iuice, which being boyled with a little Allum is vsed of painters for a deep greene, which they do call Sap greene. The berries which be as yet vnripe, being dried and infused or steeped in water, do make a faire yellow colour, but if they be ripe they make a greene."

[Note: Sap greene was used in cookery as a food coloring agent, but it is harmful. Gerard notes that buckthorn berries are a strong purgative.]

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Buckwheat - page 89.

"Tragopyron. Buck-wheat.
...Bread made of the meale of Buck-wheat is of easie digestion, and speedily passeth through the belly, but yeeldeth little nourishment"

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Bugloss - pages 798-799.

"Buglossa. Common Buglosse, ...Lang-de-beefe.
...The leaues... are vsed as potherbes... as well Buglosse as Lang-de-Beefe..."

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Burdock - pages 809-811.

"Bardana... Clote Burre, or Burre Docke.
...The stalke of Clot-burre before the burres come forth, the rinde pilled off, being eaten raw with salt and pepper, or boyled in the broth of fat meate, is pleasant to be eaten: being taken in that manner it increaseth seed and stirreth vp lust. Also it is a good nourishement, especially boyled: if the kernell of the Pine Apple be likewise added it is the better..."

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Burnet - pages 1045-1047.

"Pimpinella hortensis... Garden Burnet.
...The lesser Burnet is pleasant to be eaten in sallads, in which it is thought to make the heart merry and glad, as also being put into wine, to which it yeeldeth a certaine grace in the drinking."

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Cactus - pages 1512-1513.

"Ficus Indica. Of the prickly Indian Fig tree.
...the fruit [is] like vnto the common Fig, narrow below, and bigger aboue, of a greene colour, and stuffed full of a red pulpe and iuice, staining the hands of them that touch it, as do the Mulberries, with a bloudy or sanguine colour... Vpon this plant in some parts of the West Indies grow certain excresences, which in continuance of time turn into Insects; and these out-growings are that high prized Cochenele wherewith they dye colours in graine...
We haue no certaine instruction from the Antients, of the temperature or faculty of this plant, or of the fruit thereof... more than that we haue heard reported of such as haue eaten liberally of the fruit hereof, that it changed their vrine to the colour of bloud; who at the first sight thereof stood in great doubt of their life, thinking it had been bloud, whereas it proued afterwards by experience to be nothing but the tincture or colour the vrine had taken from the iuice of the fruit..."

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Cammocke Furze - pages 1322-1323.

"Anonis, siue Resta Bouis. Of Cammocke Furze, Rest-Harrow, or Petty Whinne.
The tender sprigs or crops of this shrub before the thornes come forth, are preserued in pickle, and be very pleasant sauce to be eaten with meat as sallad, as a Dioscorides teacheth."

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Capers - pages 895-896.

They stir vp an appetite to meat... They are eaten boiled (the salt first washed off) with oile and vineger, as other sallads be, and sometimes are boiled with meat."

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Caraway - pages 1033-1034.

"Carum, siue Carcum.
It consumeth winde, it is delightfull to the stomacke and taste... the root may be sodden, and eaten as the Parsenep or Carrot is.
The seeds confected, or made with sugar into Comfits, are very good for the stomacke..."

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Carob - pages 1429-1430.

"Ceratia siliqua, sive Ceratonia. Of the Carob tree, or Saint Iohns Bread.
...the fruit or long cods... are of a sweet taste, and are eaten of diuers, but not before they be gathered and dried; for being as yet green, though ripe, they are vnpleasant to be eaten by reason of their ill fauoured taste..."

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Carrot - pages 1027-1028.

"Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia, Pastinaca satiua atro-rubens.
The root of the yellow Carrot is most commonly boiled with fat flesh and eaten... The red Carrot is of like facultie with the yellow."

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Cherry - pages 1502-1507.

"Cerasus vulgaris. Of the Cherrie Tree.
The best and principall Cherries be those that are somewhat sower: those little sweet ones which be wilde and soonest ripe be the worst: they containe bad juice, they very soon putrifie, and do ingender ill bloud... The late ripe Cherries which the French-men keep dried against winter, and are by them called Morelle, and we after the same name call them Morell Cherries, are dry, and do somewhat binde; these being dried are pleasant to the taste, and wholesome for the stomacke, like as Prunes be, and do stop the belly. Generally all the kindes of Cherries are cold and moist of temperature, although some more cold and moist than others: the which being eaten before meat doe soften the belly very gently... Many excellent Tarts and other pleasant meats are made with Cherries, sugar, and other delicat spices, whereof to write were to small purpose."

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Chervil - pages 1037-1040.

Cheruill is held to be one of the pot-herbes, it is pleasant to the stomacke and taste... It is vsed very much among the Dutch people in a kinde of Loololly or hotch-pot which they do eate, called Warmus. The leaues of sweet Cheruill are exceeding good, wholesome, and pleasant, among other sallad herbs, giuing the taste of Anise seed vnto the rest... The seeds eaten as a sallad whilest hey are yet greene, with oyle, vineger, and pepper, exceed all other sallads by many degrees, both in pleasantnesse of taste, sweetnesse of smell, and wholsomnesse for the cold and feeble stomacke.
The roots are likewise most excellent in a sallad, if they be boyled and after dressed as the cunning Cooke knoweth how better than my selfe: notwithstanding I doe vse to eate them with oile and vineger, being first boyled; which is very good for old people that are dull and without courage; it reioyceth and comforteth the heart, and increaseth their lust and strength."

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Chestnut - pages 1441-1443.

"Castanea. Of the Chestnut tree.
Our common Chestnuts are very dry and binding, and be nither hot nor cold, but in a mean betweene both: yet haue they in them a certaine windinesse, and by reason of this, vnlesse the shell be firest cut, they skip suddenly with a cracke out of the fire whilest they be rosting... Being boiled or rosted they are not of so hard digestion... Some affirme, that of raw Chestnuts dried, and afterwards turned into meale, there is made a kinde of bread: yet it must needs be, that this should be dry and brittle, hardly concocted, and verie slow in passing thorow the belly..."

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Citrull Cucumber - pages 913-914.

"Citrullus officinarum.
Citrull Cucumbers.
The meat or pulpe of Cucumer Citrull which is next vnto the bark is eaten raw, but more commonly boiled..."

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Citrus Fruit - pages 1462-1465.

"Malus. Of the Citron, Limon, Orange, and Assyrian Apple trees.
[the rind of the Pomecitron] is good to be eaten against a stinking breath, for it maketh the breath sweet; and being so taken it comforteth the cold stomacke exceedingly. The white, sound, and hard pulpe is now and then eaten, but very hardly concocted, and ingendreth a grosse, cold, and phlegmaticke iuyce; but being condite with sugar, it is both pleasant in taste, and easie to be digested, more nourishing, and lesse apt to obstruction and binding or stopping.
Galen reporteth, that the inner iuice of the Pomecitron was not wont to be eaten, but it is now vsed for sauce; and being often vsed, it represseth choler which is in the stomacke, and procures appetite..."

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Clary - pages 768-770.

"Gallitricum, siue Horminum. Clarie
...The leaues of Clarie taken any manner of way, helpeth the weaknesse of the backe proceeding of the ouermuch flowing of the whites, but most effectually if they be fried with eggs in manner of a Tansie, either the leaues whole or stamped."

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Cleavers - pages 1121-1123.

"Aparine. Goose-grasse or Cliuers.
...Women do vsually make pottage of Cleuers with a little mutton and Otemeale, to cause lanknesse, and keep them from fatnesse."

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Clove Gillyflowers - pages 588-590.

"Caryophyllus. Cloue Gillofloure.
The conserue made of the floures of the Cloue Gillofloure and sugar, is exceeding cordial, and wonderfully aboue measure doth comfort the heart, being eaten now and then."

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Coconut - pages 1521-1523.

"Nux Indica arbor. Of the Indian Nut tree. vnto the shell vpon the inside there cleueth a white cornelly substance firme and sollid, of the colour and taste of a blanched Almond: within the cauitie or hollownes thereof is contained a most delectable liquor like vnto milke, an dof a most pleasant taste.
...The distilled liquor is called Sula; and the oile that is made thereof, Copra... The Indians do vse to cut the twigs and tender branches toward the euening, at the ends whereof they haue bottle gourds, hollow canes, and such like things, fit to receiue the water that droppeth from the branches thereof, which pleasant liquor they drinke in stead of wine, from the which is drawne a strong and comfortable Aqua Vitae... Likewise they make of the shell of the Nut, cups to drike in, which we likewise vse in England, garnished with siluer for the same purposes. The kernell serueth them for bread and meat; the milkie iuice doth serue to coole and refresh their wearied spirits: out of the kernel when it is stamped, is pressed a most precious oile, not onely good for meat, but also for medicine..."

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Coriander - pages 1011-1013.

"Coriandrum. Corianders.
Coriander seed prepared and couered with sugar, as comfits, taken after meat closeth vp the mouth of the stomacke, staieth vomiting, and helpeth digestion... The manner how to prepare Coriander, both for meat and medicine. Take the seed well and sufficiently dried, whereupon poure some wine and vinegar, and so leaue them to infuse or steepe foure and twentie houres, then take them forth and drie them, and keepe them for your vse."

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Corne-Marigold - pages 743-745.

"Chrysanthemum. Corne-Marigold.
The stalkes and leaues of Corne Marigold, as Dioscorides saith, are eaten as other pot-herbes are."

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Costmary - pages 647-649.

"Balsamita. Costmarie and Maudelein.
Costmarie is put into Ale to steepe, as also into the barrels and Stands amongst those herbes wherewith they doe make Sage Ale..."

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Cow Parsnips - pages 1008-1009.

"Sphondylium. Cow Parsnep.
The people of Polonia and Lituania vse to make drinke with the decoction of this herbe, and leuen or some other thing made of meale, which is vsed in stead of beere and other ordinarie drinke."

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Cowslips of Jerusalem - pages 808-809.

"Pulmonaria... Cowslips of Jerusalem.
The leaues are vsed among pot-herbes."

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Cress - pages 249-251.

"Nasturtium hortense. Garden Cresses.
...Galen saith that the Cresses may be eaten with bread Velutiobsonium, and so the Antient Spartanes vsually did; and the low-Countrie men many times doe, who commonly vse to feed of Cresses with bread and butter. It is eaten with other sallade hearbes, as Tarragon and Rocket..."

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Crow-Garlic and Ramsons -p. 179-180.

"Allium syluestre. Of Crow-Garlicke and Ramsons.
The leaues of Ramsons be stamped and eaten of diuers in the Low-countries, with fish for a sauce, euen as we do eate greene-sauce made with sorrell. The same leaues may very well be eaten in April and May with butter, of such as are of a strong constitution, and labouring men."

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Cucumber - pages 909-912

"Cucumis... Cucumbers.
Cucumber (saith my Author) taken in meats, is good for the stomack and other parts troubled with heat... [a cure]The fruit cut in pieces or chopped as herbes to the pot and boiled in a small pipkin with a piece of mutton, being made into potage with Ote-meale, euen as herb potage are made, whereof a messe eaten to break-fast, as much to dinner, and the like to supper; taken in this manner for the space of three weekes... doth perfectly cure all manner of sawce-flegme and copper faces... "

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Date - pages 1517-1518.

"Palma. Of the Date tree.
...the fruit is ripe in September, and being then gathered they are dried in the Sunne, that they may be the better both transported into other countries far distant, as also preserued from rotting at home... All manner of Dates whatsoeuer are hard of digestion, and cause head-ache: the worser sort be those that be dry and binding, as the Egyptian Dates; but the soft, moist, and sweet ones are lesse hurtfull... The Dates which grow in colder regions, when they cannot come to perfect ripenesse, if they be eaten too plentifully, do fill the body full of raw humors, ingender winde, and oft times cause the leprosie... There is made hereof both by the cunning Confectioners and Cookes, diuers excellent cordiall, comfortable, and nourishing medicines, and that procure lust of the body very mightily."

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Earth-nut - pages 1064-1065.

" Bulbocastanon. Earth-nut, Earth Chest-nut, or Kipper-nut.
...The Dutch people doe vse to eate them boyled and buttered, as we doe Parseneps and Carrots, which so eaten comfort the stomacke, and yeeld nourishment that is good for the bladder and kidneyes."

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Elder - pages 1421-1424.

"Sambucus. Of the Elder tree.
...after them grow vp little berries, greene at the first, afterwards blacke, whereout is pressed a purple juice, which being boiled with Allom and such like things, doth serue very well for the Painters vse, as also to colour vineger...
...the fresh floures mixed with some kinde of meat, as fried with egges, they likewise trouble the belly and moue to the stoole: being dried they lose as well their purging qualitie as their moisture, and retaine the digesting and attenuating qualitie...
The vinegar in which the dried floures are steeped are wholsome for the stomacke: being vsed with meat it stirreth vp an appetite, it cutteth and attenuateth or maketh thin grosse and raw humors."

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Elecampane - pages 792-794.

" Helenium. Elecampane.
...The roots condited after the manner of Eringos serueth for the purposes aforesaid... The roots are to be gathered in the end of September, and kept for sundrie vses, but it is especially preserued by those that make Succade and such like."

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Fennell Gyant - pages 1056-1058.

" Ferula. Herbe Ferula, or Fennell Gyant.
...It is reported to be eaten in Apulia rosted in the embers, first wrapped in leaues or in old clouts, with pepper and salt; which, as they say, is a pleasant sweet food, that stirreth vp lust, as they report."

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Fenugreek - pages 1196-1197.

"Foenumgraecum. Of Fenugreeke.
It is thought according to Galen in his booke of the Faculties of nourishments, that it is one of those simples which do manifestly heat, and that men do vse it for food, as they do Lupines; for it is taken with pickle to keep the body soluble, and for this purpose it is more agreeable than Lupines..."

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Figs - pages 1510-1511.

"Ficus. Of the Fig tree.
The dry Figs do nourish better than the greene or new Figs; notwithstanding they ingender not very good bloud, for such people as do feed much thereon doe become lowsie... Dioscorides saith, that the white liquor of the Fig tree, and the iuice of the leaues, do curdle milke as rennet doth, and dissolve the milke that is cluttered in the stomacke, as doth vinegar."

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Filberts - pages 1438-1440

"Nux Auellana, sive Corylus. Of the Hasell tree.
...this kernell is sweet and pleasant vnto the taste... Hasell Nuts newly gathered, and not as yet dry, containe in them a certaine superfluous moisture, by reason whereof they are windie: not onely the new gathered Nuts, but the dry also, be very hard of digestion; for they are of an earthy and cold essence, and of an hard and sound substance, for which cause also they very slowly passe thorow the belly, therefore they are troublesome and clogging to the stomacke, cause head-ache, especially when they be eaten in too great a quantitie. The kernells of Nuts made into milke like Almonds do mightily bind the belly, and are good for the laske and the bloudy flix."

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Flax - pages 556-557.

"Linum sativum. Garden Flaxe.
...Galen in his first booke of the faculties of nourishments saith, that diuers vse the seed hereof parched as a sustenacne [sic] with Garum, no otherwise than made salt. They also vse it mixed with hony, some likewise put it among bread but it is hurtfull to the stomacke, and hard of digestion... at Middleborough in Zeland, where for want of graine and other corne, most of the Citizens were faine to eate bread and cakes made hereof with hony and oile, who were in short time after swolne in the belly below the short ribs, faces, & other parts of their bodies in such sort, that a great number were brought to their graues thereby..."

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Ginger - pages 60-62.

"Zingiberis. Of Ginger.
Ginger, as Dioscorides reporteth, is right good with meate in sauces, or otherwise in conditures: for it is of an heating and digesting qualitie canded, greene or condited Ginger is hot and moist in qualitie, prouoking Venerie: and being dried, it heateth or drieth in the third degree."

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Ginnie Pepper - pages 364-366

"Capsicum longioribus siliquis. Of Ginnie or Indian Pepper.
Ginnie pepper hath the taste of pepper, but not the power or virtue, notwithstanding in Spaine and sundrie parts of the Indies they do vse to dresse their meate therewith, as we doe with Calecute pepper: but (saith my Authour) it hath in it a malicious qualitie, whereby it is an enemy to the liuer and other of the entrails. Auicen writeth that it killeth dogs. It is said to die or colour like Saffron; and being receiued in such sort as Saffron is vsually taken, it warmeth the stomacke, and helpeth greatly the digestion of meates."

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Goats Beard - pages 735-736.

"Tragopogon. Goats Beard, or Go to bed at noone.
The [roots] boyled in water vntill they be tender, and buttered as parseneps and carrots, are a most pleasant and wholsome meate, in delicate taste farre surpassing either Parsenep or Carrot: which meate procures appetite, warmeth the stomacke, preuaileth greatly in consumptions, and strengtheneth those that haue been sicke of a long lingring disease."

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Goats Rue - pages 1252-1253.

"Galega. Of Goats Rue.
The herbe itselfe is eaten, being boiled with flesh, as we vse to eate Cabbage and other woorts, and likewise in sallades, with oile, vineger and pepper, as we do eate boiled Spinage, and such like..."

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Good King Henry - page 329.

"Bonus Henricus. English Mercurie, or good Henrie.
The leaues boiled with other pot-herbes and eaten, maketh the body soluble."

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Gooseberry - pages 1324-1325.

"Vua Crispa. Of Goose-berrie, or Fea-berry Bush.
The fruit is vsed in diuers sauces for meate, as those that are skilfull in cookerie can better tel than my selfe. They are vsed in broths in stead of Veriuice, chich maketh the broth not onely pleasant to the taste, but greatly profitable to such as are troubled with a hot burning ague...The young and tender leaues eaten raw in a sallad, prouoke vrine, and driue forth the stone and grauell."

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Gourds - pages 922-924.

"Cucurbita... Gourds.
The Gourds are cherished in the gardens of these cold regions rather for pleasure than for profit: in the hot coutries where they cope to ripenesse there are sometimes eaten, but with small delight; especially they are kept for the rindes, wherein they put Turpentine, Oyle, Hony, and also serue them for pales to fetch water in, and many other like vses...
The pulpe also is eaten sodden... But being baked in an ouen or fried in a pan it loseth the most part of his naturall moisture..."

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Guayaua - pages 1612-1613.

"Guayava arboris ramus. Of the Guayaua, or Orange-Bay.
The fruit is vsually eaten, the rinde being first taken off; it is pleasing to the palate, wholesome and easie of concoction... if rosted, it is good both for the sound and sicke; for so handled it is wholsommer, and of a more pleasing taste..."

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Hares Eares - pages 607-609.

"Bupleurum. Hares Eares.
Hippocrates hath commended it in meats, for sallads and Pot-hearbs..."

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Hemp - pages 708-709.

"Cannabis. Hempe.
The seed of Hempe, as Galen writeth in his bookes of the faculties of simple medicines, is hard of digestion, hurtfull to the stomacke and head, and containeth in it an ill iuyce: notwithstanding some do vse to eate the same parched, cum alijs tragematis, with other junkets... Matthiolus saith, that the seed giuen to hens causeth them to lay egges more plentifully."

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Hops - pages 884-885.

"Lupus salictarius. Hops.
The buds or first sprouts which come forth in the Spring are vsed to be eaten in sallads... The floures are vsed to season Beere or Ale with, and too many do cause bitternesse thereof... The floures make bread light, and the lumpe to be sooner and easilier leauened, if the meale be tempered with liquor wherein they haue been boyled."

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Horseradish - pages 240-242.

"Raphanus rusticanus. Horse Radish.
...Horse Radish stamped with a little vineger put thereto, is commonly vsed among the Germanes for sauce to eate fish with, and such like meates, as we doe mustard; but this kinde of sauce doth heate the stomacke better, and causeth better digestion than mustard."

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Houseleek - pages 512-515.

"Sedum minus. Lesser Houseleekes or Prickmadams. vsed in many places in sallads, in which it hath a fine relish, and a pleasant taste..."

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Jerusalem Artichoke - pages 752-754.

"Flos Solis Pyramidalis. Jerusalem Artichoke.
These rootes are dressed in diuers waies; some boile them in water, and after stew them with sacke and butter, adding a little Ginger: others bake them in pies, putting Marrow, Dates, Ginger, Raisons of the Sun, Sacke, &c. Others some other way, as they are led by their skill in Cookerie. But in my iudgement, which way soeuer they be drest and eaten they stirre and cause a filthie loathsome stinking winde within the bodie, thereby causing the belly to bee pained and tormented, and are a meat more fit for swine, than men..."

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Kidney Beans - pages 1211-1216

"Phaseolus [and] Smilax. Of Kidney Beane.
The fruit and cods of Kidney Beanes boiled together before they be ripe, and buttered, and so eaten with their cods, are exceeding delicate meat, and do not ingender winde as the other Pulses doe. They doe also gently loose the belly, prouoke vrine, and ingender good bloud reasonably well; but if you eat them when they be ripe, they are neither toothsome nor wholsome. Therefore they are to be taken whilest they are yet greene and tender, which are first boiled vntill they be tender; then is the tib or sinew that doth run alongst the cod to be taken away; then must they be put into a stone pipkin, r some other vessell with butter, and set to the fire againe to stew, or boile gently: which meat is very wholsome, nourishing, and of a pleasant taste."

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Ladies Bedstraw - pages 1126-1128.

"Gallium. Ladies Bedstraw.
...The herbe thereof [of yellow Maids haire] is vsed for Rennet to make cheese, as Matthiolus reporteth, saying, That the people of Tuscanie or Hetruria doe vse to turne their milke, that the Cheese which they make of Sheeps and Goats milke might be the sweeter and more pleasant in taste, and also more wholsome, especially to breake the stone, as it is reported.
The people in Cheshire, especially about Namptwich, where the best cheese is made, do vse it in their Rennet, esteeming greatly of that cheese aboue other made without it."

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Lambs Lettuce & Corn Sallad - pages 310-311.

"Lactuca. Lambs Lettuce, Corne Sallad.
...This herbe is cold and something moist, and not vnlike in facultie and temperature to the garden Lettuce; in stead whereof, in Winter and in the first moneths of the Spring it serues for a sallad herbe, and is with pleasure eaten with vineger, salt and oile, as other sallads be, among which it is none of the worst."

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Lettuce - pages 306-308.

"Lactuca. Lettuce.
...Lettuce maketh a pleasant sallad, being eaten raw with vineger, oyle, and a little salt: but if it be boyled it is sooner digested, and nourisheth more. It is serued in these dayes, and in these countries in the beginning of supper, and eaten first before any other meate: which also Martiall testifieth to be done in his time, maruelling why some did vse it for a seruice at the end of supper, in these verses...

Tell me why Lettuce, which our Grandsires last did eate,
Is now of late become, to be the first of meate?

Notwithstanding it may now and then be eaten at both those times to the health of the body: for being taken before meat it doth many times stir vp appetite: and eaten after supper it keepeth away drunkennesse which commeth by the wine; and that is by reason that it stayeth the vapors from rising vp into the head."

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Liquorice - pages 1301-1303.

"Glycyrrhiza vulgaris. Of Liquorice.
...with the juice of Licorice, Ginger, and other spices, there is made a certaine bread or cakes, called Ginger-bread, which is very good against the cough, and all the infirmities of the lungs and brest: which is cast into moulds, some of one fashion, and some of another...
These things concerning Liquorice hath also Theophrastus: viz. that with this and with cheese made of Mares milke the Scythians were reported to be able to liue eleuen or twelue dayes."

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Lovage - pages 1007-1008.

"Leuisticum vulgare. Louage.
The seed thereof warmeth the stomack, helpeth digestion; wherefore the people of Gennes in times past did vse it in their meates, as wee doe pepper, according to the testimonie of Ant. Musa."

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Lupine - pages 1216-1219.

"Lupinus satuvus. Of the flat Beane called Lupine.
The seed of the garden Lupine is... much and often vsed... for the same being boiled and afterwards steeped in faire water, vntill such time as it doth altogether lose his naturall bitternes, and lastly being seasoned with a reasonable quantity of salt, it is eaten with pickle... The Lupines being made sweet and pleasant, mixed with vinegar and drunk, take away the lothsomnesse of the stomacke, and cause a good appetite to meat."

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This page was last modified on March 16, 2006.